Addressing Environmental Pollution and Conflict Triggered By Urban Livestock Keeping Through By-Laws: A Case of Dodoma and Morogoro Municipalities in Tanzania

Rehema Tiberio Mdendemi, Susan Rugano Gwalema


This study was conducted between September 2017 and March, 2018 in two municipalities namely Dodoma and Morogoro in two municipalities of Dodoma and Morogoro before Dodoma Municipality assumed a City status in May, 2018. The aim was to assess whether urban by-laws were effective enough to check negative effects basically environmental pollution and related conflicts caused by urban livestock keeping which is one of the important urban economic activities for urban communities’ livelihood.  Case studies covering two Municipalities were employed whereby multiple methods involving in-depth and quantitative methods were used to collect data focused on the degree of effectiveness of bylaws and conduct of awareness building on adherence to bylaws governing urban livestock keeping controlling environmental pollution and conflicts related to livestock keeping. Specifically, primary data were collected at household level through interviews and focused group discussion. Secondary data were collected through documentary review on environmental pollution and conflict due urban livestock keeping which were obtained from Municipal Offices, libraries and internet. Using a sample of 298 respondents whose majority were livestock keepers, it was found that 50 % were of the opinion that weak enforcement of the bylaws and, (20%) attributed to inadequate community participation in the preparation of the bylaws as the major causes of bylaws’ failure. Related to weak enforcement of the bylaws was inadequate extension staff, weak supervision by leaders and limited number of contacts to livestock keepers. It was further found that the avenues through which positive actions could be taken to enforce compliance are: reporting the incidences to the authorities (61.7%) and through effective leaders and staff (21% and12.1% respectively). For effective enforcement of bylaws, municipal councils should make livestock keeping part of municipal development planning and that, the capacity of participatory monitoring teams at the local level should be enhanced.


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