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Vol. 3 No. 1 (2020): Tanzania Journal of Science and Technology
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Manuscript Requirements

Manuscript should be arranged as follows:

The whole manuscript should be typed on A-4 Paper, using Microsoft Word Calibri font size 12 and double spaced with margins: 25 mm on top, 25 mm on bottom, 25 mm on left and 25 mm on right. Manuscripts should be arranged in the order of: title page, abstract, introduction, materials and methods, results, discussion, acknowledgements, references, tables, figures, and figure legends. Results and discussion sections may be combined if appropriate

Title Page: This page must be concise, specific, informative and clear and should be written in bold using font 14. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible. The full names of the author(s) of the manuscript including their corresponding affiliation(s) should be indicated immediately below the title. Indicate all affiliations with a lower- case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name and, if available, the e-mail address of each author. A complete address (e-mail) of the person to whom all correspondences regarding the manuscript should be addressed must also be indicated.

Abstract: Abstract must follow immediately after the title page. The abstract shall be in italics and shall contain up to 300 words indicating mainly the objectives and main findings of the manuscript. Three to five key words representing concepts of the paper may be written at the end of the abstract.

Main Text: In the main text: Introduction section should describe the objective of the reported work and provide relevant background information. Materials and methods section should indicate clearly the materials, methods and procedures employed including the population and area of study if applicable. Results section should explain all the important findings from the study in form of text to emphasize important points and in form of tables and figures where applicable. Discussion should describe the implications of the findings and any conclusions based on the findings.

Nomenclature and Units should follow internationally accepted rules and conventions e.g. International System of units (SI). If other units are mentioned, please give their equivalent in SI. Abbreviations in the body of the paper should be used after having been initially explained. If statistical analysis is applicable, it is important that the procedure is carried out following appropriate methods. Tables should be as close as possible to the text explaining the concepts. Tables should be numbered in the order in which they are mentioned in the text. A Table caption must be presented in upper case at the top. All non-standard abbreviations used in each table should be explained as table notes just below the table body. Figures must be clearly drawn, placed as close as possible to the related text and numbered according to the order in which they appear in the text. A Figure caption should be typed in bold and in sentence case immediately below the Figure. Pagination: The page numbers should appear at the centre of the bottom edge of the page.

References: All references should be carefully checked and cited according to American Psychological Association (APA) system. Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). References to books, articles and monographs must be identified at appropriate point in text by author‘s last name and publication year. References should be cited in the text using (Name, Year) style For one author‘s name and two authors‘ names in text cite (Gimbi, 2016) and (Magoha and Gimbi, 2016). References with more than three authors should be cited as (Fweja et al., 2016) in the text. With more than one reference to an author in one year, distinguish them by use of letter (a, b) attached to publication year (e.g., Mbwette, 2016a, 2016b). A series of references within one pair of parenthesis will be enclosed, separated by semicolons e.g., (Magoha, 2014; Ikwaba, 2015; Mutalemwa et al., 2016; Thomas, 2017).

All references should be listed alphabetically at the end of the paper. Journal papers should be written in the format: Author(s) names, (year). Article title, Name of journal, Volume Number, Issue Number, page range. In the case of books, the reference should indicate the authors, year of publication, title, edition (when applicable), place and name of publisher. Conference proceedings should be listed by indicating the author(s), (year), Title of article, Name of conference, Location and dates of conference as well as page range. Internet sources should be listed by giving the name of author(s) or company or organisation, (year), Title of article, URL and the date found.


Authors are required to submit the electronic copy of the final version of the manuscript together with a covering letter signed by the corresponding author stating that all authors (in case of multiple authors) have read the manuscript, agree with the content and approve for submission to the Journal. Only materials that have never been submitted for publication and published elsewhere will be considered. The manuscripts will be subjected to critical review by the Editorial Board and then  by at least two anonymous reviewers who will look on the originality, relevance, clarity, appropriateness of the methods, validity of data, reasonability of the conclusion and support from data. The Editorial board reserve the right to demand separate detailed information from the author(s) on methodology used and data analysis methods employed as may be applicable. A decision on every manuscript will be communicated to respective author(s) within three months from submission date.

Authors should revise their papers (with minimum alterations) as soon as comments from the reviewers are received; and return a corrected version to the Editorial board for consideration. If corrected proofs are not returned within a reasonable time of dispatch, the Editorial Board reserve the right to reject, edit any submitted manuscript approved for publication. Contributors will receive one free of charge copy of the Journal when published.

Length of manuscripts: Indicative length of manuscript is as follows; Original high-quality Research papers - Preferably no more than 20 double-line spaced manuscript pages, including tables and illustrations (max 8,000 words). Short communications should not exceed 6-8 double-line spaced manuscript pages excluding references and legends or a maximum of  2,500words. Research notes and review articles in all areas should not have word between 4,000 and 8,000 words.

Manuscripts must be submitted to:

The Chief Editor

Tanzania Journal of Science and Technology,

The Open University of Tanzania,

P. O. Box 23409,

Dar es Salaam,




Editorial Board

Chief Editor:

Dr. Damasen P. Ikwaba, Open University of Tanzania, Tanzania

Assistant Chief Editor:

Dr. Angaza Gimbi, Open University of Tanzania, Tanzania

Editorial Board:

1. Prof. James Uhomoibhi, University of Ulster, UK

2. Prof Clavery Tungaraza, Sokoine University of Agriculture (SUA), Morogoro

3. Prof. Titus A. M. Msagati, University of Kwazulu Natal, South Africa

4. Prof. Martin E. Kimanya, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

5. Dr. Charles Tarimo, University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

6. Dr. James T. Zacharia, Dar es Salaam University College of Education, Tanzania

7. Dr. Happy Magoha, Open University of Tanzania, Tanzania

8. Dr. Said M.S. Massomo Open University of Tanzania, Tanzania