Does Development Assistance For Health Buy Better Results In Maternal Health in Tanzania? Evidence from Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) Model.
AbstractThis paper establishes whether development assistance for health buy better results in maternal health in Tanzania using annual time series data for the period between 1995 and 2014 based on Autoregressive Distributed Lags (ARDL) and Error Correction Model. A long run cointegration relationship exists between GDP per capita, maternal mortality, unemployment and development assistance for health over examined period of time. The results show that in the long run Development Assistance for Health (DAH) and Economic growth (measured by real GDP per capita) was significant in reducing maternal mortality in Tanzania. In the short run, unemployment was statistically significant on increasing maternal mortality in Tanzania between 1995 and 2014. Furthermore, the short run results show that both DAH and real GDP per capita reduces maternal mortality between 1995 and 2014. The results imply that Development Assistance for Health (DAH) channeled to the health sector is an important component in improvements of maternal health in Tanzania. The findings are robust to sensitivity analyses and estimation methods.Â Â
Arndt, C., Jones, S. & Tarp, F. (2014). Assessing Foreign Aidâ€™s Long Run Contribution to Growth and Development. World Development, 69, 6-18.
Bendavid, E. (2014). Is Health Aid Reaching the Poor? Analysis of Household Data from Aid Recipient Countries.PLoS ONE, 9(1):e84025.
Bendavid, E., & Battacharya, J. (2014). The Relationship of Health Aid to Population Health Improvements. JAMA Intern Med, 174(6), 881-887.
Bendavid, E., & Bhattacharya, J. (2009). The Presidents Emergency Plan for Aids Relief in Africa: An Evaluation of Outcomes. Annals of Internal Medicine, 150(10), 688-695.
Brenner, M.H. (2005). Commentary: Economic Growth is the Basis of Mortality Rate Decline in the 20th Century- Experience of the United States 1901-2000. International Journal of Epidemiology, 34(6), 1214-1221.
Chung, M & Raman, G., (2007). Breastfeeding and Maternal and Infant Health Outcomes In Developed Countries: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ). AHRQ Publication No. 07-E007.
Feeney, S. & Quattara, B. (2013). The Effects of Health Aid on Child Health Promotion in
Developing Countries: Cross Country Evidence. Applied Economics, 45(7), 911-919
Gerein, N., Green, A., & Pearson, S. (2006). The Implications of Shortages of Health Professionals for Maternal Health in Sub-Saharan Africa. Reproductive Health Matters, 14(27), 40-50.
Gomanne, K., Morrissey, O., & Girma, K. S. (2005). Aid, Public Spending & Human Welfare: Evidence from Quantile Regressions. Journal of International Development, 17 299309.
Gyimah-Brempong, K. (2015). Do African Countries Get Health from Health Aid? Journal of African Development, 17, 83â€“114
IHME (2015).Financing Global Health 2015: Development Assistance Steady on the Path to New Global Goals. Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation: University of Washington.
IHME, (2012). Financing Global Health 2012: The End of the Golden Age? Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation.
Illah, E., Mbaruku, G., Masanja, H., & Kahn, K. (2013).Causes and Risk Factors for Maternal Mortality in Rural Tanzania - Case of Rufiji Health and Demographic Surveillance Site (HDSS).African Journal of Reproductive Health, 17(3), 119-130.
Kabir, M. (2008). Determinants of Life Expectancy in Developing Countries. The Journal of Developing Areas, 41(2), 185-204.
MacKellar, L. (2005). Priorities in Global Assistance for Health, AIDS, and Population. Population and Development Review, 31(2), 293-312.
Magadi, M.A., Msiyaphazi Zulu, E.M., & Brockerhoff, M. (2003). The Inequality of Maternal Health Care in Urban Sub-Saharan Africa in the 1990s.Population Studies, 57(3), 347 â€“ 366.
Mavalankar, D.V., Vora, K.S., Ramani, K.V., Raman, P., Sharma, B., &Upadhyaya, M. (2009).
Maternal Health in Gujarat, India: A Case Study on Safe Motherhood. Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition, 27(2), 235 â€“ 248.
Meyer, R.E., &Buescher, P.A., (1994). Maternal Mortality Related to Induced Abortion in North Carolina: A Historical Study. Family Planning Perspectives, 26 (4), 179 â€“ 191.
Murthy, V.N., & Okunade, A.A. (2009). The Core Determinants of Health Expenditure in the African Context: Some Econometric Evidence for Policy. Health Policy, 91(1), 57-62.
Pesaran, M.H., Shin, Y., & Smith, R. J. (2001).Bounds Testing Approaches to the Analysis of Level Relationships. Journal of Applied Econometrics, 16, 289-326.
Rosenstein-Rodan, P. (1943). Problems of Industrialisation of Eastern and South-Eastern Europe. The Economic Journal, 53(210/211), 202-211.
Sidze, E.M., Pradhan, J., Beekink, E., Maina, T.M., & Beatrice, W., Maina, B.W. (2013).
Reproductive Health Financing in Kenya: An Analysis of National Commitments, Donor Assistance, and the Resources Tracking Process. Reproductive Health Matters, 21(42), 139 â€“ 150.
Sridhar, D & Gostin, L. (2010). HEALTH: Caring About Health. The World Today, 66(8-9), 26 -
Taylor, E.M., Hayman, R., Crawford, P., Jeffrey, P., Smith, J. (2013). The Impact of Official Development Aid on Maternal and Reproductive Health Outcomes: A systematic Review. PLoS ONE, (2): e562771.
Unger, J. P., Dessel, P.V., Sen, K., & Paepe, P.D. (2009). International Health Policy and
Stagnating Maternal Mortality: Is there a Causal Link? Reproductive Health Matters, 17(33), 91 â€“ 104.
United States. (1995). Differences in Maternal Mortality among Black and White Women. Morbidity and Mortality. Weekly Report, 44(1), 6-14.
WDI. (2016). World Development Indicators Database. Retrieved June 2017, http://data.worldbank.org.
WHO, Commission on Macroeconomics and Health (2001).Investing in Health for Economic Development. WHO: Geneva.
WHO, ICM, FIGO. (2004). Making Pregnancy Safer. The Critical Role of the Skilled Attendant. Geneva.
WHO, UNICIF, UNFPA, WB, & UNPD. (2015). Trends in Maternal Mortality: 1990 to 2015. Geneva, Switzerland.
WHO. (2005). Health and the Millennium Development Goals, Geneva, Switzerland.
WHO. (2007). Maternal Mortality in 2005: Estimates developed by WHO, UNICEF, UNFPA and The World Bank. Geneva.