Efficiency of Mutual Funds and Portfolio Performance Measurement: A Case of Selected Mutual Funds in Tanzania
Keywords:Portfolio Performance Measurement Mutual Funds, Tanzania.
AbstractThis study examines the current efficiency trends in the Tanzanian mutual fund industry over a five-year span (2018-2022), focusing on six specific funds: Umoja Fund, WekezaMaisha, Watoto Fund, Jikimu Fund, Liquid Fund, and Bond Fund. Employing a non-parametric approach, specifically Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), the research collects secondary data from diverse sources, including newspapers, journals, books, periodicals, and the websites of UTT and the Bank of Tanzania (BOT). Monthly Net Asset Values (NAVs) of the selected mutual funds are scrutinized from each scheme's inception. Motivated by the limited understanding of mutual fund efficiency in Tanzania despite reported successes in increased asset values, profitability, and investor numbers, the study reveals distinctive performances under Constant Returns to Scale (CRS) and Variable Returns to Scale (VRS) assumptions. Under VRS, all mutual funds consistently achieve nearly 100% efficiency, signifying optimal operational scales. However, under CRS, efficiency scores fluctuate over time, underscoring the importance of mutual funds' adaptability for enhanced efficiency. Furthermore, the research suggests that mutual fund size significantly influences efficiency and potential scale economies. Smaller mutual funds demonstrate superior resource utilization efficiency, attributed to their focused investment approach. The analysis of inputs and output slacks provides insights into efficiency and resource utilization, identifying areas of optimal resource management and highlighting opportunities for improvement. The findings offer valuable insights into mutual fund efficiency under different scale assumptions, emphasizing the importance of scale flexibility and efficient resource management for superior performance. Implications suggest avenues for further research to explore external factors, efficiency fluctuations, portfolio management practices, and longitudinal trends within the mutual fund industry.