Constitution-Making Process in Tanzania (2011-2014): A New Era for Women Political Participation?


  • Alexander Makulilo
  • Victoria Lihiru



Tanzania, constitution, gender, Constitutional Review Commission, Constitutional Review Act, CAP 83 R.E. 2012


Constitution-making as a public policy process requires substantive participation of all citizens in determining the content of the constitution. In Tanzania, unlike the colonial and post-colonial constitution-making legal framework and processes, the 2011-2014 constitution-making process was a critical juncture for it was governed by the Constitutional Review Act, CAP 83 R.E 2012 which for the first time contained provisions allowing citizens including women to participate and influence the content of the 2014 Proposed Constitution. This article examines two interrelated questions notably the extent to which women were involved in the constitution-making process, and how such participation impacted the content of the Proposed Constitution in terms of protection and promotion of women political participation in the country. It is argued that the legal framework facilitated meaningful participation of women in each step of the constitution-making process. Consequently, women managed, for the first time in history, to secure constitutional guarantees of equality and non-discrimination in political life.

Author Biographies

Alexander Makulilo

University of Dodoma

Victoria Lihiru

The Open University of Tanzania