Role of Reward System on Teacher Motivation in Public Secondary Schools in Ilala Municipality


  • Daniel Lazaro Swai
  • Winifrida Saimon Malingumu



Motivation, work performance, rewarding systems, working condition.


This study sought to link performance, the level of teachers’ motivation and the reward systems existing in public secondary schools in Ilala Municipality. The study involved a total of 397 respondents including teachers, quality assurers, and heads of schools as key respondents to whom questionnaires and interviews were administered (only 20 participants were involved in the interview out of 397). Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The study findings revealed that there was no relationship between the level of teachers’ motivation and the reward systems existing in public secondary schools. While the reward system such as timely salary payment, the existence of timely rewarding system with clear performance standards set for rewarding, and existence of fair opportunities for professional development among teachers are linked to performance. However, findings further revelaed that the majority of teachers were demotivated by factors such as lack of transport, office space, housing facilities, poor working conditions, such as, shortage of classrooms, which resulted into having packed classrooms. Other factors include unclear reward system and low salaries compared to other professions. It is recommended that rewarding systems should be clear and communicated to teachers. Ilala Municipality should ensure the availability of teachers houses in school proximity, adopting clear guidelines for rewarding teachers, ensure that teachers are paid reasonable salaries, improving teacher working environment such as ensuring availability of teaching resources in schools. It is also recommended that, future research should be expanded to other regions of Tanzania; and includes more variable; such as issues of workload, stress and stress management and mental health towards employees’ performance. The analysis techniques also should include multilevel analysis as it is expected to have groups and nested data. To conclude, the government should improve teaching and learning environment.

Author Biographies

Daniel Lazaro Swai

The Open University of Tanzania

Winifrida Saimon Malingumu

The Open University of Tanzania