Impact of COVID-19 on Inclusive Education in Higher Learning Institutions in Rwanda


  • Daniel Twesige
  • Faustin Gasheja
  • Kadhafi Isaie Misago
  • Eugene Muvunyi



Covid–19, Learning, Education institutions, inclusive learning, online learning, Students


This study analysed the impact of COVID – 19 pandemics on the inclusive learning process of students in the higher learning institutions in Rwanda. A quantitative research design was adopted. Primary data was collected from 1170 students in 30 learning institutions in Rwanda using a closed ended questionnaire. Data was analysed using descriptive and inferential statistical analytical tools. The results indicated covid -19 has impacted the inclusive learning process of students in the higher learning institutions in different ways.  Students in rural areas were more affected due to limited access to internet connections, lack of internet data and limited access to electricity all of which were caused by limited infrastructure in the online learning. Students from poor families regardless of their locations suffered more due to limited access to electricity and internet connections in their homes. The study contributed to the existing knowledge in two ways, Firstly, it established the impact of covid–19 pandemic on the inclusive learning process in higher learning institutions. Secondly, it established the learning inequality based on location and social economic status.

Author Biographies

Daniel Twesige


Faustin Gasheja

University of Rwanda

Kadhafi Isaie Misago

University of Rwanda

Eugene Muvunyi

University of Rwanda