An Assessment of the Structural and Process Quality in pre-Primary Education in Tanzania: The case of Rural Schools
Keywords:Quality education, pre-primary education, structural, process, teachers’ qualifications
AbstractIn recent years, there has been an increase in the demand for early childhood education (ECE) in lowand middle-income countries, including Tanzania. There is also growing awareness that unless ECE is of high quality, children may attend school but may not learn. This study sought to establish the quality of ECE programmes. It was, therefore, important that the researcher investigates whether the ECE programmes were meeting the expectations of the quality indicators and consequently the holistic needs of children in the early years. The study utilized a descriptive survey design. Data were collected throughan observation schedule and questionnaires administered to 45 pre-primary education teachers in Dodoma, Morogoro and Mwanza regions, Tanzania. Data were analyzed descriptively using frequencies, percentages, means and standard deviations.Findingsrevealed that infrastructure, teachers’behaviours, school leadership and child-protection measures were generally fair. While teachers’ qualifications, classroom characteristics, parents’ participation in school activities, equipment and materials were found to be unsatisfactory. By way of conclusion, unsatisfactory structural and process quality of ECEin rural areas calls forregular in-service training for teachers, improving classroom characteristics, increasing parents’ involvement in school activities, and increased budget allocations to pre-primary education (PPE). Addressing these areas can lead to better educational outcomes for children and contribute to their overall academic success.