• Kassimu A. Nihukaa
  • Florence Peter


 The study reported in this paper investigated challenges facing implementation of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) which is famously known in Kiswahili as Teknolojia ya Habari na Mawasiliano (TEHAMA) curriculum in primary schools in Dar es Salaam. The study used case study research design and a total of 206 respondents comprising of 106 pupils and 98 teachers from 15 primary schools drawn from the districts in Dar es Salaam region participated in the study. Structured questionnaires were used to collect data from teachers and pupils. Analysis of data through the Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) has shown that there are several challenges facing effective implementation of ICT curriculum in primary schools in Dar es Salaam. The challenges include   unwillingness of some teachers to teach ICT, lack of interest to teach ICT, lack of ICT literacy among teachers and pupils, lack of pedagogical knowledge and limited access to ICT facilities by most teachers and pupils.  The study concludes that, successful implementation of ICT curriculum in primary schools in Tanzania is still a challenging endeavour. It is therefore recommended that  efforts should be made to redress the identified challenges and that further researh should be conducted to evaluate a professional development programme that is developed to promote primary school teachers‟ pedagogical knowledge so that they can exploit and implement ICT currciulum more efficiently and effectively in primary schools in Tanzania.    

Author Biographies

Kassimu A. Nihukaa

The Open University of Tanzania, Institute of Continuing Education

Florence Peter

The Open University of Tanzania, Candidate, Med (APPS), Faculty of Education,  


Bowes, J. (2003). The emerging repertoire demanded of teachers of the future: Surviving the transition. Retrieved from CRPITV23Bowes on September 1st, 2013).

Bullock, D. (2004). Moving from theory to practice: An examination of the factors that pre-service teachers encounter as they attempt to gain experience teaching with technology during field placement experiences. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 12(2), 211–237.

Fuglestad, A. B. (2004). ICT tools and pupils' competence development. In M. Johnsen-Høines & A. B. Fuglestad (Eds.), Proceedings of the 28th Conference for the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (pp. 2-439-2-44).

Kay, R. (1992). Understanding gender differences in computer attitudes, aptitudes and use: An invitation to build theory. Journal of Research on Computing in Education, 25(2), 159-171.

Kent, N., & Facer, A. (2004). Different worlds? A comparison of young people‘s home and school ICT use. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 20, 440 – 455.

Kenya schoolnet. (2003). Preparing a Workforce for the Evolving Information Economy: A Survey on ICT Access and Use in Kenya Secondary Schools. Summit Strategies Limited, Nairobi.

Kersaint, G., Horton, B., Stohl, H., & Garofalo, J. (2003). Technology beliefs and practices of mathematics education faculty. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 11(4), 549–577.

Kirschner, P. & Davis, N. (2005). Pedagogic benchmarks for information and communication technology in teacher education. Technology, Pedagogy and Education. 12 (1): 125–147.

Lishan, A. & Wood, F. (1999), An Investigation of the impact of IT in Sub-Saharan Africa. Journal of Information Science 25(4), 307-318.

Mambo, H. L. (1993). Managing automation in developing countries. Library Review 42(5), 38-43.

Mambo, H. L. (1998), An investigation into the development of computer library network among institution of higher learning in Tanzania, PhD Thesis, Department of Information Studies: University of Natal.

Mapunda, M. (2004). The use of internet by secondary school teacher: A Case of twelve secondary schools in Dar es Salaam. Masters dissertation, University of Dar es Salaam.

Mentz, E. & Mentz, K. (2003). Managing technology integration into schools: A South African Perspective. Journal of Educational Administration 41(2), 186-200.

Mulamula, G. (1998), Information technology in government: The African experience. Dar es Salaam.

Mwakajinga, L. S. (2009), Global connections: Understanding African culture, Dar es Salaam: NNP.

Mwandosya, M. (2003), Harnessing ICT to enhance business public sector effectiveness: Speech delivered by the Minister of Communication and Transport at Commonwealth-Tanzania Investment Conference held on 29th May, 2003.

Rogers, E. M. (2003). Diffusion of innovations (5th ed.). New York: Free Press.

Sahay, S. & Walshan, F. (1995), IT in developing countries: A need for theory building information development 6(10), 111-124.

Swarts, P. & Wachira, E. (2010), Tanzania: ICT in education situational analysis, GESCI. Retrieved from on 25th August, 2013 licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/

URT (2002), Population and housing census general report. Government of Tanzania.

Watson, D. M. (1998). Blame the techno-centric artifact! What research tells us about problems inhibiting teacher use of IT. In G. Marshall, & M. Ruohonen (Eds.), Capacity building for IT in education in developing countries (pp. 185–192). London: Chapman & Hall.

Woodrow, J. E. (1992). The influence of programming training on the computer literacy and attitudes of pre-service teachers. Journal of Research on Computing in Education, 25(2), 19-59.