Evolution and Policy Reforms in Tanzania: A Glance on Education Sector Development to Year 2010.


  • Newton M. Kyando


Ujamaa, Kujitegemea, Education for Self-Reliance, Education Policy, Education Reforms


This article focuses on the education sector policy development in Tanzania, by a review of related literature. It starts with a brief on education in colonial times through of Mwalimu Nyerere in Tanzania politics; educational aspects of the Ujamaa na Kujitegemea policy leading into Education for Self-Reliance; recent educational policies reflecting the reforms experienced in Tanzania; and finally a look at the most recent educational document, ESDP, as a working document. A close look reveals the long persisting educational problems that have been moving with the reforms. It is clear that the educational reforms and policies had, always, political forces behind them as well as global economic changes on its broadest sense. Post 1980 economic forces dismantled whatever was built by the political forces, in the name of reforms. These, when combined with existing problems, raises a number of questions; Is the failure of policy implementation a result of little or no consideration of educational research? And what is the educational research position when it comes to influencing policy implementation? This paper argues that reform and transformations in policies are based on foreign forces, ad hoc measures and limited scientific evaluation of issues from the local initiatives. This has led into catch up approach of policy making in education sector, making it difficult to establish long-term success base. By implication this means that scholars within the state borders, whether by design or default had stayed out of policy processes.

Author Biography

Newton M. Kyando

The Open University of Tanzania